Histone Modifications

Acetylation, methylation, ubiquitination, citrullination, and phosphorylation of particular amino acids within the histone protein are just a few examples of the many different forms of histone modifications. These changes are typically made near the C-terminal (or "tail") end of the protein. Changing the overall chromatin structure and/or influencing the binding of transcription effector molecules are two ways that histone modifications affect gene expression. The effect of histone methylation on gene expression is highly context-dependent because it can either promote or repress gene expression. The background of methylation of histones H3 and H4 provides the best characterization of the biological role of histone methylation.

  • Nucleosomes
  • chromatin

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