Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine

The practices of personalized medicine are to maximize the therapeutic effects of likelihood and to minimize the risk of drug toxicity for an individual patient. Pharmacogenomics is the study of the genome in drug response. The genetic disorder occurrence is quite rare in population; some might be hereditary while the others are caused by mutations. Disease-specific epigenetic signatures such as DNA methylation, hydroxymethylation, and non-coding RNAs are now being utilized clinically for prognostics and diagnostics, while an expanding collection of genetically aberrant, abnormally expressed or chromatin-interacting epigenetic enzymes are positioned as promising targets for therapeutic intervention. Scientists also recognize that even as the knowledge base continues to expand, the clinical translation of that knowledge still requires empirical evidence, generated for a